Ultrafine particle emissions from essential-oil-based mosquito repellent products

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Abstract

Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions from three essential-oil-based mosquito repellent products (lemon eucalyptus (LE), natural insects (NI), and bite shield (BS)) were tested in a 386 l chamber at a high air exchange rate of 24/h with filtered laboratory air. Total particle number concentration and size distribution were monitored by a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. UFPs were emitted from all three products under indoor relevant ozone concentrations (˜ 17 ppb). LE showed a nucleation burst followed by a relatively stable and continuous emission while the other two products (NI and BS) showed episodic emissions. The estimated maximum particle emission rate varied from 5.4 × 109 to 1.2 × 1012 particles/min and was directly related to the dose of mosquito repellent used. These rates are comparable to those due to other indoor activities such as cooking and printing. The emission duration for LE lasted for 8–78 min depending on the dose applied while the emission duration for NI and BS lasted for 2–3 h.

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