Epidemiology of Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

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OBJECTIVEDescribe central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) epidemiology in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs).DESIGNDescriptive study (29 PICUs); cohort study (18 PICUs).SETTINGPICUs in a national improvement collaborative.PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTSPatients admitted October 2006 to December 2007 with 1 or more central lines.METHODSCLA-BSIs were prospectively identified using the National Healthcare Safety Network definition and then readjudicated using the revised 2008 definition. Risk factors for CLA-BSI were examined using age-adjusted, time-varying Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTSIn the descriptive study, the CLA-BSI incidence was 3.1/1,000 central line–days; readjudication with the revised definition resulted in a 17% decrease. In the cohort study, the readjudicated incidence was 2.0/1,000 central line–days. Ninety-nine percent of patients were CLA-BSI-free through day 7, after which the daily risk of CLA-BSI doubled to 0.27% per day. Compared with patients with respiratory diagnoses (most prevalent category), CLA-BSI risk was higher in patients with gastrointestinal diagnoses (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.43–5.16]; P < .002) and oncologic diagnoses (HR, 2.6 [CI, 1.06–6.45]; P = .037). Among all patients, including those with more than 1 central line, CLA-BSI risk was lower among patients with a central line inserted in the jugular vein (HR, 0.43 [CI, 0.30–0.95]; P < .03).CONCLUSIONSThe 2008 CLA-BSI definition change decreased the measured incidence. The daily CLA-BSI risk was very low in patients during the first 7 days of catheterization but doubled thereafter. The risk of CLA-BSI was lower in patients with lines inserted in the jugular vein and higher in patients with gastrointestinal and oncologic diagnoses. These patients are target populations for additional study and intervention.

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