Control of Simultaneous Outbreaks of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in an Intensive Care Unit Using Interventions Promoted in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2012 Carbapenemase-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Toolkit

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We describe the efficacy of enhanced infection control measures, including those recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) toolkit, to control concurrent outbreaks of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB).

DESIGN

Before-after intervention study.

SETTING

Fifteen-bed surgical trauma intensive care unit (ICU).

METHODS

We investigated the impact of enhanced infection control measures in response to clusters of CPE and XDR-AB infections in an ICU from April 2009 to March 2010. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of blaKPC and resistance plasmids in CRE. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess XDR-AB clonality. Enhanced infection-control measures were implemented in response to ongoing transmission of CPE and a new outbreak of XDR-AB. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the incidence rate (IR) of CPE and XDR-AB before and after the implementation of these measures.

RESULTS

The IR of CPE for the 12 months before the implementation of enhanced measures was 7.77 cases per 1,000 patient-days, whereas the IR of XDR-AB for the 3 months before implementation was 6.79 cases per 1,000 patient-days. All examined CPE shared endemic blaKPC resistance plasmids, and 6 of the 7 XDR-AB isolates were clonal. Following institution of enhanced infection control measures, the CPE IR decreased to 1.22 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P = .001), and no more cases of XDR-AB were identified.

CONCLUSIONS

Use of infection control measures described in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 CRE toolkit was associated with a reduction in the IR of CPE and an interruption in XDR-AB transmission.

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