Influence of insertion site on central venous catheter colonization and bloodstream infection rates

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Abstract

Objective:

To compare colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) rates among three insertion sites (subclavian, internal jugular, femoral) used for central venous catheter (CVC) placement.

Design:

Twenty-four-month prospective study, with relative effects analyzed by Cox proportional hazards regression.

Setting:

Eight-bed intensive care unit.

Patients:

Four hundred and ten critically ill patients requiring CVC placement.

Measurements and results:

All short-term multi-lumen CVCs, including antimicrobial-coated devices, were studied with management standardized. Six hundred and five CVCs (4,040 catheter days) were analyzed. Colonization and CR-BSI incidence were, respectively, 15.1 (95% CI 13.5–21.0) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2–4.2) per 1,000 catheter-days. Colonization was higher at the internal jugular (HR 3.64; 95% CI 1.32–10.00; p = 0.01) and femoral (HR 5.15; 95% CI 1.82–14.51; p = 0.004) sites than at the subclavian site. The femoral site carried a greater risk of being colonized by non-S. epidermidis species than the subclavian and internal jugular sites combined (HR 4.15; 95% CI 1.79–9.61; p = 0.001). CVCs inserted in the Department of Emergency Medicine were more colonized than those inserted in the ICU or operating room (HR 2.66; 95% CI 1.27–5.56; p = 0.01), and CVCs were less colonized in females than in males (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.26–0.89; p = 0.02). No difference in CR-BSI rates was noted between the three sites.

Conclusions:

Colonization was lowest at the subclavian site. Regional differences exist with respect to type of pathogen isolated. Colonization was influenced by insertion location and gender. The incidence of CR-BSI was not different.

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