Changing face of health-care associated fungal infections

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Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this review was to evaluate recent publications on the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections.Recent findingsEpidemiological surveys have highlighted significant differences between Europe and the United States regarding the incidence and etiology of Candida bloodstream infections. Today, invasive aspergillosis is occurring in a much broader patient population than the classical immunocompromised hosts and includes mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients and patients receiving corticosteroids for treatment of chronic lung diseases. Diagnosis is often delayed in these patients and prognosis is dismal. Measurement of galactomannan, mannan and antimannan antibodies, and β-(1–3)-D-glucan may help to speed up diagnosis. The epidemiology of invasive mold infections is changing. The frequency of non-fumigatus Aspergillus species is increasing, uncommon hyalo-or phaeo-hyphomycoses are emerging and breakthrough mold infections intrinsically resistant to azoles have been reported. Clinical trials have shown that new azoles and echinocandins are as efficacious as amphotericin B or fluconazole for the treatment of eosophageal or invasive candidiasis, for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in transplant patients, or for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia.SummaryRecent data suggest that the epidemiology of invasive fungal infections may be changing with the emergence of uncommon molds and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis in ‘nonclassical’ immunocompromised hosts. New diagnostic tools and improved antifungal agents are available to facilitate early diagnosis and offer new treatment options.

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