Interactions Between Gut Microbiota and Hosts and Their Role in Infectious Diseases

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Major infectious diseases, such as viral hepatitis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and tuberculosis, are difficult to eliminate within a short period. Dengue fever, global influenza pandemic, and ebola and other high-threat pathogens are now the main threats to human health as well. Therefore, it is particularly important to find new strategies for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The human gut tract contains trillions of microbial cells, including bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. These microbes are defined as gut microbiota and play an important role in human development, immunity, metabolism and diseases. In this review, we analyzed the mechanisms by which alterations in gut microbiota affect infectious diseases and how infectious diseases regulate the structure and function of gut microbiota. Finally, we summarized and discussed methods used for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases based on the alteration of gut microbiota.

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