|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The interaction between human endothelial cells (EC) and leukocytes during inflammation is in part mediated through the release of soluble factors. Since platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent mediator of inflammatory responses, we investigated the potential of PAF to modulate IL-6 and GM-CSF production by EC. Exposure of these cells to PAF resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in IL-6 production, with a maximum at 10−10 M PAF. Sequential incubation of EC with PAF and TNFα resulted in a synergistic increase of IL-6 production. This effect was specific for PAF since it was prevented by preincubation with the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2086. Northern blot analysis revealed enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in PAF-treated EC. However, the synergy observed in protein synthesis between PAF and TNFα was not reflected in IL-6 mRNA accumulation, suggesting a post-translational modulation. Pretreatment of EC with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide before their exposure to PAF resulted, after washout of the cycloheximide, in a markedly augmented production of IL-6, suggesting a synergy between augmented IL-6 mRNA accumulation by PAF and IL-6 mRNA superinduction by cycloheximide. GM-CSF production by EC was also stimulated by the combined effects of PAF and TNFα, but PAF alone did not affect GM-CSF production. Taken together, our data suggest that PAF can stimulate EC to synthesize cytokines, including IL-6 and GM-CSF, which may contribute to local and, possibly, systemic responses during inflammation.