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A selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation is claimed to be controlled by regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In animal models, eotaxin has been suggested to be a potent chemokine since it in cooperation with interleukin-5 induce selective chemotaxis and infiltration of eosinophils to lung tissue after an allergen provocation. We have investigated the in vitro effect of eotaxin on human peripheral blood eosinophils with respect to CD11b/CD18 expression and adhesion properties to the matrix protein fibronectin. We did not find any effect of eotaxin per se on CD11b/CD18 expression, neither on eosinophils from healthy subjects nor from patients with asymptomatic pollen related asthma. However, eotaxin significantly upregulated the quantitative level of CD11b/CD18 and increased the adhesion to fibronectin in eosinophils from healthy subjects preincubated in vitro with interleukin-5, but not in eosinophils preincubated with fMLP. Moreover, eosinophils harvested 24 hours after an in vivo allergen inhalation provocation in asthmatics, upregulated CD11b/CD18 after in vitro incubation with eotaxin alone.