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Rabbit tracheal explants, exposed to burning pine wood smoke, were cultured in a chemically defined medium with and without retinoic acid (±RA). Exposures of 15–20 minute led to RA-independent degeneration of the mucociliary epithelial sheath. In 10 minute exposures tissue integrity was retained, but epithelial morphology changed from normal pseudostratified columnar to the flattened appearance typical of the squamous phenotype. Despite the dramatic shift in morphology, explants exhibited normal RA-dependent mucin gene expression characteristic of the mucociliary phenotype. Furthermore, electron micrographs showed continued presence of both secretory granules and cilia. RA(+) cultures also showed a normal pattern of adherent epithelial cells. In RA(−) cultures, however, there were prominent intercellular spaces indicating an RA dependence for maintaining adhesive contacts following smoke exposure. An 18-mer mucin antisense oligomer that suppressed mucin gene expression also unexpectedly blocked the smoke induced metaplasia in RA(+) cultures, but the sense oligomer had no effect.