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An inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases such as interstitial pneumonia (IP). To clarify the role of the inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation, we introduced a murine TNF-α gene into murine lungs by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome method. Seven days after the TNF-α gene introduction resulted in marked cellular infiltration of alveoli, and mild histological change was observed 28 days after the gene introduction. Electron microscopic analysis revealed minimal deposition of collagen fibrils. Analysis of the BAL revealed that the total cell number was markedly increased 3 and 7 days after the gene introduction, and more than 90% of the cells were macrophages. The increase in the cell number was returned to below the normal level 28 days after the gene introduction. During the development of IP, TNF-α may regulate pathologic change of the pulmonary interstitium and alveolar cells.