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Neutrophils and macrophages express on their membrane molecules which may, in principle, interact with each other, promote specific cell to cell adhesion, affect cell function and finally, as a consequence, modulate the progression of the inflammatory process. We tested therefore if human neutrophils specifically adhere to human monocyte-derived macrophage monolayer (MDMM). Our findings show that neutrophils significantly adhere to 4-day old MDMM and that the extent of adhesion is increased by LPS-activation of MDMM. The specificity of the interaction was shown by the very low extent of adhesion of neutrophils either to freshly prepared monocyte or other types of cell monolayers and by the low percent of adhesion showed by eosinophils exposed to 7-day old MDMM. A role for β2 integrins, CD31 and PAF-receptor in the mechanism of neutrophil-MDMM interaction is suggested by specific antagonists. We suggest that the adhesion between the two cell types could lead to an increase in concentration of neutrophil- or macrophage released factors in the interaction site and in a mutual modulation of phagocyte functions.