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Pouchitis is a common complication seen in patients with ulcerative colitis who undergo total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Bacteria seem to play an important role in the development of pouchitis, although this role is not well defined. Because technology has advanced, we are able to apply molecular techniques to describe the structure and function of the pouch microbial community. In recent years, several studies have been performed comparing the pouch microbiota in patients with ulcerative colitis with healthy pouches and pouchitis. Many of these studies have suggested that pouchitis is characterized by dysbiosis and/or decreased microbial diversity. There has not been a clear pattern identifying a pathogenic organism or a group of organisms responsible for pouchitis. This review summarizes recent studies exploring the pouch microbiota in health and disease, the relationship of bacterial metabolites and pouchitis, and the role of antibiotics and probiotics for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis.