Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy in the Management of Established Crohn's Disease: Clinical Impact, Safety, and Correlation with Inflammatory Biomarkers

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Background:Multiple studies have established the superior diagnostic accuracy of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) for the diagnosis of small bowel (SB) Crohn's disease (CD). However, data on the clinical impact of VCE in patients with established CD are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the impact and safety of VCE on the clinical management of patients with established CD.Methods:A retrospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study. The study cohort included consecutive patients with established SB CD who underwent VCE in 4 tertiary referral centers (1 Canada, 1 Sweden, and 2 United Kingdom) from January 2008 to October 2013. Patients were excluded if VCE was performed as a part of the initial diagnostic workup. The presence of SB mucosal inflammation was quantified using the Lewis score. Inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin) were measured and correlated with the Lewis score.Results:The study included 187 patients. No SB inflammation was observed in 28.4%, mild-to-moderate inflammation in 26.6%, and moderate-to-severe inflammation in 45% of the patients (median Lewis score, 662; range, 0–6400). A change in management was recommended in 52.3% of the patients based on VCE findings. Elevated C-reactive protein, fecal calprotectin, or the combination of both were poorly correlated with significant SB inflammation. SB capsule retention occurred in 4 patients (2.1%).Conclusions:VCE in patients with established CD is safe, and the results often have a significant clinical impact. VCE should not be limited to CD patients with positive inflammatory markers because their predictive value for significant SB inflammation is poor.

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