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Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and history of malignancy within the last 5 years are usually contraindicated for receiving anti–tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. The aim of this study is to assess survival without incident cancer in a cohort of IBD patients exposed to anti-TNF while having previous malignancy within past 5 years.Data from IBD patients with previous malignancy diagnosed within the last 5 years before starting an anti-TNF agent were collected through a Groupe d'Etude Thérapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires du tube Digestif multicenter survey. Inclusion date corresponded to the first anti-TNF administration after cancer diagnosis.Twenty centers identified 79 cases of IBD patients with previous malignancy diagnosed 17 months (median; range: 1–65) before inclusion. The most frequent cancer locations were breast (n = 17) and skin (n = 15). After a median follow-up of 21 (range: 1–119) months, 15 (19%) patients developed incident cancer (8 recurrent and 7 new cancers), including 5 basal-cell carcinomas. Survival without incident cancer was 96%, 86%, and 66% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. Crude incidence rate of cancer was 84.5 (95% CI, 83.1–85.8) per 1000 patient-years.In a population of refractory IBD patients with recent malignancy, anti-TNF could be used taking into account a mild risk of incident cancer. Pending prospective and larger studies, a case-by-case joint decision taken with the oncologist is recommended for managing these patients in daily practice.