Clinical Course of Ulcerative Colitis After Liver Transplantation in Patients with Concomitant Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Ulcerative Colitis

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Background:The natural history of ulcerative colitis (UC) after liver transplantation (LT) for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains ill defined. This study aimed to evaluate the course of UC after LT for PSC.Methods:The course of UC, including the clinical colitis severity index, was evaluated in patients with concomitant PSC and UC who received LT for PSC-induced end-stage liver disease. A total of 167 (55.4%) patients with PSC had concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Of 159 cases of IBD that started before LT, 152 (95.5%) had UC and 7 (4.5%) had Crohn's disease.Results:The mean duration of patient follow-up after LT was 47.7 ± 33.5 months. The simple clinical colitis activity index scores after LT showed no change in 15.8% of patients, decreased in 78.3%, and increased in 5.9%. Seventy-one (46.7%) patients required no change in their specific UC treatment after LT, whereas 12 (7.9%) had to use more aggressive treatments after LT. In 69 (45.4%) patients, treatment could be tapered although not discontinued. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the duration of LT (odds ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.05, P = 0.03) was significantly associated with aggravation in the clinical course of UC after LT. Posttransplant cyclosporine exposure (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.015–0.79, P = 0.028) and pretransplant body weight (odds ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–0.93, P = 0.003) demonstrated a protective effect.Conclusions:Although the clinical course of UC remains unchanged or even improves in the majority of patients after LT, some may experience an aggressive course. The type of immunosuppression after transplantation can affect UC activity after LT. Cyclosporine may have some protective effects post-LT.

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