Interleukin-27 Is a Potential Rescue Therapy for Acute Severe Colitis Through Interleukin-10–Dependent, T-Cell–Independent Attenuation of Colonic Mucosal Innate Immune Responses

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Background:If treatment with intravenous steroids fail, inflammatory bowel disease patients with acute severe colitis face systemic anti–tumor necrosis factor biologic rescue therapy or colectomy. Interleukin (IL)-27 is a cytokine with an immunosuppressive role in adaptive immune responses. However, the IL-27 receptor complex is also expressed on innate immune cells, and there is evidence that IL-27 can impact the function of innate cell subsets, although this particular functionality in vivo is not understood. Our aim was to define the efficacy of IL-27 in acute severe colitis and characterize novel IL-27–driven mechanisms of immunosuppression in the colonic mucosa.Methods:We assessed oral delivery of Lactococcus lactis expressing an IL-27 hyperkine on the innate immune response in vivo in a genetically intact, noninfective, acute murine colitis model induced by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid in SJL/J mice.Results:IL-27 attenuates acute severe colitis through the reduction of colonic mucosal neutrophil infiltrate associated with a decreased CXC chemokine gradient. This suppression was T cell independent and IL-10 dependent, initially featuring enhanced mucosal IL-10. IL-27 was associated with a reduction in colonic proinflammatory cytokines and induced a multifocal, strong, positive nuclear expression of phosphorylated STAT-1 in mucosal epithelial cells.Conclusion:We have defined novel mechanisms of IL-27 immunosuppression toward colonic innate immune responses in vivo. Mucosal delivery of IL-27 has translational potential as a novel therapeutic for inflammatory bowel disease, and it is a future mucosal directed rescue therapy in acute severe inflammatory bowel disease.

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