Serological analysis of cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) has proven to be a useful technique in the quest to elucidate the repertoire of immunogenic gene products in human cancer. We have applied the SEREX method to human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in order to identify associated immunogenic gene products. cDNA expression libraries were prepared from a RCC tumor, a RCC cell line and human testis. The 3 libraries were screened with sera from 35 RCC patients and 15 healthy controls. Approximately 4.5 × 106 phage plaques were screened resulting in 234 positive clones, which corresponded to 74 different gene products. The seroreactivity toward 49 of these antigens was assessed. Seroreactivity to 21 (43%) of the antigens was similar in RCC patients and healthy controls, 9 antigens (18%) elicited antibodies more frequently and 19 antigens (39%) solely in RCC patients. In the reverse setting, reactivity of RCC patients' sera was tested against a panel of 44 previously identified “tumor-associated” antigens via the SADA (serum antibody detection array) method; 6 antigens reacted with RCC patients' and healthy donors' sera, 8 were reactive only with RCC patients' sera. From the 27 antigens identified by SEREX and SADA, which did not react with sera from healthy controls, 10 antigens reacted with a significant proportion of RCC patients' sera and 77% of RCC patients' sera reacted at least with one of these antigens. Sera from patients with non-malignant renal diseases or an autoimmune disease did not react with these 10 antigens.