Response surface methodology was used to display the characteristics of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of soluble solids and decursin from Angelica gigas Nakai root, thereby allowing MAE conditions to be optimized. These included ethanol concentration, microwave power and extraction time. The maximal solid yield was predicted to be 44.2% under conditions of 44.9% ethanol concentration, 115.6 W microwave power and 5.8 min extraction time. Decursin content of the extract was estimated to be maximal at 2.52% using 97.7% ethanol, 90.2 W microwave power, and 6.1 min extraction time. The estimated optimal MAE conditions (67% ethanol, 100 W and 6 min) to maximize both components were verified by comparing estimated values with experimental values (42.2% soluble solids, 2.2% decursin), which were higher than those (35.8% solids, 2.0% decursin) obtained by conventional reflux extraction (60% ethanol, 95 °C and 6 h).