|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Fifteen samples of different geographical origin including Pakistan were analysed for density, ash, water content, electrical conductivity, total acidity, pH, total solid, hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF), minerals and trace metals. The physicochemical parameters were found to be within acceptable ranges (specific gravity 1.40–1.46, ash 0.03–0.21%, moisture 15.6–19.2, total solid 78.7–81.4%, free acidity 23.55–58.52 meq kg−1, conductivity 0.27–0.37 mS cm−1, pH 3.29–4.05, viscosity 33.4–136.4 poise). However, the analysis of HMF showed that imported samples were either exposed to a high temperature during processing or were overage. Greater attention is required, therefore, in the analysis of HMF and in deciding the shelf life, particularly for the imported samples before marketing. Pollen analysis revealed that all the analysed samples were of a multifloral type. All the data were statistically tested using principal component analysis (PCA) with the aim of characterizing the honeys and identifying the most significant parameters in the analysed samples.