The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to discriminate genetically modified (GM) and non-GM organisms. In this study, eighty-four sugar beet samples (thirty-six GM sugar beets and forty-eight of their parents, non-GM ones) were investigated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system between 0.2 and 1.2 THz. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate sugar beet samples into two classes: GM organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. Study results indicate that the DA method leads to an excellent classification. A total of 95.8% of the non-GM samples were accurately classified, and no GM samples were misclassified, as there was 100% correctness. Results of this study demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques can provide a fast, nondestructive and reliable method to differentiate GMOs and non-GMOs, which avoids time-consuming, laborious and expensive sensory and chemical analyses.
Discriminant analysis (DA) based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate GM and non-GM sugar beets. The results indicate that THz spectroscopy technique combined with DA method can achieve an effective discrimination of GMOs.