Factor structure of the 10-item CES-D scale among community dwelling older adults in Singapore

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To establish the factor structure, reliability and validity of a brief CESD scale among Community dwelling older adults in Singapore.


Data were derived from interviews conducted among 1,013 randomly selected non-institutionalized older adults aged 65 years and above in Singapore. First, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to test three factors in the entire sample: a one-factor model, a two-factor model (Depressed affect, Positive affect) and a three-factor model (Depressed affect, Somatic retardation, and Positive affect). Next, Multi-Group Analysis was conducted to test the scale invariance for male and female older adults.


Findings supported a two-factor model—depressed affect and positive affect for the entire sample. In addition, multi-group analysis showed the two-factor structure to be invariant for male and female older adults.


Brief CESD demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The CESD scores can be used to compare symptoms of depression between male and female older adults.

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