Solubility of molecular crystals: Polymorphism in the light of solubility theory

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Abstract

The thermodynamic theory of solubility of molecular crystals in solvents is reviewed with an emphasis on solutes showing polymorphism as in case of many pharmaceuticals. The relation between solubility and binary phase diagrams of the solute solvent system is treated. The astonishing variety of possible solubility curves as a function of temperature is explained using simple models for the solution thermodynamics assuming no mixing between the solvent and solute in the solid phase, though including the case of solvates or pseudo polymorphs. In passing a new method is introduced that allows to estimate the transition temperature of enantiotropically related polymorphs from melting temperatures and enthalpies of the polymorphs.

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