To enhance the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) composed of oil, surfactant and cosurfactant for oral administration of CoQ10 was formulated. The solubility of CoQ10 was determined in various oils and surfactants. The formulations were prepared using two oils (Labrafil M 1944 and Labrafil M 2125), surfactant (Labrasol) and cosurfactant (Lauroglycol FCC and Capryol 90). In all the formulations, the level of CoQ10 was fixed at 6% (w/v) of the vehicle. These formulations were characterized by solubility of the drug in the vehicle, particle size of the dispersed emulsion, zeta potential and drug release profile. Ternary phase diagrams were used to evaluate the emulsification domain. The self-emulsification time following introduction into an aqueous medium under gentle agitation was evaluated. The optimized SEDDS formulation consist of 65% (v/v) Labrasol, 25% (v/v) Labrafil M 1944 CS and 10% (v/v) Capryol 90 of each excipient showed minimum mean droplet size (about 240 nm) and optimal drug release profile in water. The pharmacokinetic study in rats for the optimized formulation was performed and compared to powder formulation. SEDDS have significantly increased the Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of CoQ10 compared to powder (P < 0.05). Thus, this self-micro emulsifying drug delivery system should be an effective oral dosage form for improving oral bioavailability of lipophilic drug, CoQ10.