Characterization and evaluation of miconazole salts and cocrystals for improved physicochemical properties

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Miconazole salts and cocrystals were studied to improve the physicochemical properties of miconazole. Maleate, hemifumarate, and hemisuccinate were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The intrinsic dissolution rate and stability of each miconazole crystal form were compared to those of freebase and nitrate to evaluate the optimal crystal form. Crystal structure analysis indicated that maleate was a salt formed by proton transfer from the acid to the imidazole group of miconazole. Hemifumarate and hemisuccinate were determined to be cocrystals formed by hydrogen bonding between the acids and the base in their crystal lattices. Intrinsic dissolution tests showed that the formation of salts and cocrystals improved the dissolution rate of miconazole. Stability tests of preliminary formulations prepared with each crystal form indicated that maleate and hemifumarate were unstable at 80 °C and generated a specific degraded product, i.e., a Michael adduct, between miconazole and the acids. Hemisuccinate had a superior intrinsic dissolution rate and stability, and is thus considered a promising crystal form of miconazole

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