Supplementation with iron-fortified foods is an effective method for treating iron deficiency diseases. However, traditional iron agents used to treat anemia of inflammation (AI) have little effect. In this study, two types of iron liposomes, heme liposomes (HEME-LIP) and ferric citrate liposomes (FAC-LIP), were prepared by the rotary-evaporated film-ultrasonication method, and the encapsulation efficiencies, microstructures, size distributions and zeta potentials were assessed. Both types of iron liposomes showed stable physical characteristics. When used to treat rat models of AI, FAC-LIP and HEME-LIP could increase serum iron levels by 119% and 54% higher than did ferric citrate (FAC) and heme, respectively. Furthermore, the hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis was up-regulated by these iron liposomes, especially by HEME-LIP. These results indicate that the absorption of iron liposomes was improved over that of unencapsulated iron agents. Thus, iron liposomes may be used to fortify food in treating iron deficiency diseases, especially AI.