The pulverization of poorly water-soluble drugs and drug candidates into nanoscale particles is a simple and effective means of increasing their pharmacological effect. Consequently, efficient methods for pulverizing compounds are being developed. Femtosecond lasers, which emit ultrashort laser pulses, can be used to generate nanoscale particles without heating and are finding in various fields, including pharmaceutical science. Laser ablation holds promise as a novel top-down pulverization method for obtaining drug nanoparticles. We used a poorly water-soluble compound, curcumin (diferuloyl methane), to understand the characteristics of femtosecond laser pulverization. Various factors such as laser strength, laser scan speed, and the buffer solution affected the size of the curcumin particles. The minimum curcumin particle size was approximately 500 nm; the particle size was stable after 30 days. In vitro studies suggested that curcumin nanoparticles exhibited a cytotoxic effect on C6 rat glioma cells, and remarkable intracellular uptake of the curcumin nanoparticles was observed. The results suggest that femtosecond laser ablation is a useful approach for preparing curcumin nanoparticles that exhibit remarkable therapeutic effects.