Evaluating optimal combination of clodronate and bioactive glass for dental application

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Both clodronate and bioactive glass are mostly used alone as treatment in various bone diseases but, they are also known to have beneficial effects in dental application. The same processes that lead to loss of bone can also result in alveolar bone loss. The object of this study was to define the optimal combination of clodronate and bioactive glass (BAG) to be used locally in dentistry. The evaluation was based on measurements and solid state properties obtained with pH, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Focused-ion beam (FIB) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS) mapping. The results indicate that if too much calcium clodronate precipitation is formed, the activity of BAG is affected negatively. As there is more reaction surface to form calcium clodronate, similar to the amount of clodronate present, this reduces the bioactivity of BAG. Therefore, in dental treatment the most suitable BAG and clodronate combination product would have apatite (HA, hydroxyapatite) formation ability and amount of clodronate enough to enhance the bioactivity of BAG allowing HA formation. Based on combinations investigated, the one with 200 mg clodronate and 1 g BAG with particle size 0.5–0.8 mm was chosen to be the most promising for local dental application.

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