Population balance modelling and multi-stage optimal control of a pulsed spray fluidized bed granulation

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In this work, one-dimensional population balance models (PBMs) have been developed to model a pulsed top-spray fluidized bed granulation. The developed PBMs have linked the key binder solution spray operating factors of the binder spray rate, atomizing air pressure and pulsed frequency of spray with the granule properties to predict granule growth behaviour in the pulsed spray fluidized bed granulation process at different operating conditions with accuracy. A multi-stage open optimal control strategy based on the developed PBMs was proposed to reduce the model mismatch, in which through adjusting the trajectory of the evolution of the granule size distribution at predefined sample intervals, to determine the optimal operating variables related to the binder spray including the spray rate of binding liquid, atomizing air pressure and pulsed frequency of spray. The effectiveness of the proposed modelling and multi-stage open optimal control strategies has been validated by experimental and simulation tests.

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