A unique two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle is useful for producing nanocomposite particles (microparticles containing drug nanoparticles) in one step. The nanocomposite particles can prevent nanoparticle aggregation. Curcumin has many reported pharmacological effects. Curcumin was entrapped in mannitol microparticles using a spray dryer coupled with a two-solution mixing-type spray nozzle to prepare “curcumin nanocomposite particles” and the application of these particles for inhalation formulations was investigated. Spray drying conditions (flow rate, concentration and inlet temperature) affected the size of both the resulting curcumin nanocomposite particles and the curcumin nanoparticles in the nanocomposite particles. The aerosol performance of the curcumin nanocomposite particles changed depending on the spray drying conditions and several conditions provided better deposition compared with the curcumin original powder. The curcumin nanocomposite particles showed an improved dissolution profile of curcumin compared with the original powder. Furthermore, the curcumin nanocomposite particles showed a higher cytotoxic effect compared with the curcumin original powder towards three cancer cell lines. Curcumin nanocomposite particles containing curcumin nanoparticles show promise as an inhalation formulation for treating lung-related diseases including cancer.