Niosomal approach to brain delivery: Development, characterization and in vitro toxicological studies

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Graphical abstractThe majority of active agents do not readily permeate into brain due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Currently, the most innovative and promising non-invasive strategy in brain delivery is the design and preparation of nanocarriers, which can move through the brain endothelium. Niosomes can perform brain delivery, in fact polysorbates, can act as an anchor for apolipoprotein E from blood plasma. The particles mimic LDL and interact with the LDL receptor leading to the endothelial cells uptake.The efficacy of niosomes for anticancer therapeutic applications was correlated to their physicochemical and drug delivery properties. Dimensions and ζ-potential were characterized using dynamic light scattering and asymmetric flow-field fractionation system. Lipid bilayer was characterized measuring the fluidity, polarity and microviscosity by fluorescent probe spectra evaluation. Morphology and homogeneity were characterized using atomic force microscopy. Physicochemical stability and serum stability (45% v/v fetal bovine and human serum) were evaluated as a function of time using dynamic light scattering. U87-MG human glioblastoma cells were used to evaluate vesicle cytotoxicity and internalisation efficiency. From the obtained data, the systems appear useful to perform a prolonged (modified) release of biological active substances to the central nervous system.

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