Nasal nanovaccines

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Nasal administration of vaccines is convenient for the potential stimulation of mucosal and systemic immune protection. Moreover the easy accessibility of the intranasal route renders it optimal for pandemic vaccination. Nanoparticles have been identified as ideal delivery systems and adjuvants for vaccine application. Heterogeneous protocols have been used for animal studies. This complicates the understanding of the formulation influence on the immune response and the comparison of the different nanoparticles approaches developed. Moreover anatomical and immunological differences between rodents and humans provide an additional hurdle in the rational development of nasal nanovaccines. This review will give a comprehensive expertise of the state of the art in nasal nanovaccines in animals and humans focusing on the nanomaterial used.

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