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The oral uptake of intact nanocarriers through Peyer's patches is an important uptake pathway. We report Rifampicin Lipid-Polymer hybrid nanoparticles (RIF-LIPOMER) using glyceryl monostearate as lipid and the mucoadhesive polymer, Gantrez, with the objective of balancing hydrophobicity and mucoadhesion for enhanced Peyer's patch uptake. RIF-LIPOMER was optimized for size, hydrophobicity, and mucoadhesion using Box-Behnken. Designed RIF-LIPOMER (RIF-LIPO-120) exhibited average particle size in the range 300–400 nm with drug loading >12%. DSC and XRD confirmed complete amorphization. Contact angle and mucoadhesion force revealed that RIF-LIPO-120 exhibited greater hydrophobicity and lower mucoadhesion compared to Gantrez nanoparticles (RIF-GzNP). Comparative uptake of fluorescent labelled RIF-LIPO-120 and RIF-GzNP, through Peyer's patch following intraduodenal administration in rats, revealed the high accumulation of RIF-GzNP at the villi border, and high Peyer's patch uptake of RIF-LIPO-120. Furthermore, lower accumulation of RIF-LIPO-120 in the liver, compared to RIF-GzNP, suggested bypass of the portal circulation and lymphatic uptake through Peyer's patches. Significantly higher lung: plasma concentration ratio exhibited by RIF-LIPO-120 compared to RIF-GzNP confirmed the same (p < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that optimization of hydrophobicity and mucoadhesion of nanoparticles could favor Peyer's patch uptake, which in turn could enable enhanced drug accumulation in the lungs with advantage in the therapy of pulmonary afflictions.