Planetary ball milling and supercritical fluid technology as a way to enhance dissolution of bicalutamide

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Graphical abstractDissolution of bicalutamide processed with polyvinylpyrrolidone by either supercritical carbon dioxide or ball milling has been investigated. Various compositions as well as process parameters were used to obtain binary systems of the drug with the carrier. Thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffractometry confirmed amorphization of bicalutamide mechanically activated by ball milling and the decrease in crystallinity of the supercritical carbon dioxide-treated drug. Both methods led to reduction of particles size what was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction measurements. Moreover, the effect of micronisation was found to depend on the parameters of applied process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the appearance of intermolecular interactions between drug and carrier molecules that play an important role in the stabilization of amorphous form of the active compound. Changes in crystal structure combined with reduced size of particles of bicalutamide dispersed within polymer matrix were found to improve dissolution of bicalutamide by 4 to 10-fold in comparison to untreated drug. It is of particular importance as poor dissolution profiles are considered to be the major limitation in bioavailability of the drug.

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