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An innovative approach to improve drug delivery is the use of glycerol monooleate nanoparticles. Numerous studies describe their high versatility, low toxicity and ability to carry relatively high loads of conjugated compounds including scarcely soluble ones, providing sustained drug release and increasing drug diffusion and half-life. Despite a growing interest in their potential use for therapeutic applications, there are surprisingly few literature data concerning the toxic effects of these nanoparticles at high concentrations in vitro and in vivo, and their effects on cell metabolism. We produced and characterized from a physical-chemical point of view glycerol monooleate nanoparticles and tested them on the PC12 cell line, a rat model of neuronal differentiation. The toxicity of these nanoparticles was evaluated by molecular methods on cell viability, cell cycle, nanoparticle uptake and induction of apoptosis. The results showed that glycerol monooleate nanoparticles up to 100 μg/mL had no toxic effects on PC12 cells, did not induce significant changes in the cell cycle nor cause apoptosis. The nanoparticles entered PC12 cells 8 h after treatment, successfully delivering the conjugate compound inside cells. Overall, glycerol monooleate nanoparticles did not exhibit significant toxicity on PC12 cell line in concentrations up to 100 μg/mL, supporting their therapeutic use as drug delivery systems.