Zaleplon loaded bi-layered chronopatch: A novel buccal chronodelivery approach to overcome circadian rhythm related sleep disorder

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The aim of this study was to develop a novel buccal bi-layered chronopatch capable of eliciting pulsatile release pattern of drugs treating diseases with circadian rhythm related manifestation. Zaleplon (ZLP) was used as a model drug intended to induce sleep and to treat middle of night insomnia. The chronopatch was prepared adopting double casting technique. The first layer was composed of a controlled release patch containing ZLP-Precirol melt granules intended to release ZLP in a sustained manner to maintain sleep and to prevent early morning awakening. The second layer was composed of a fast release lyophilized buccal disc containing ZLP loaded SNEDDS (Z-SNEDDS) intended for rapid sleep induction. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ZLP from the chronopatch were compared to those of the immediate release capsule, Siesta®, as reference in Mongrel dogs using a randomized crossover design. The appearance of two peaks having two Cmax and Tmax proved the pulsatile release pattern. The increase in relative bioavailability of ZLP from the chronopatch was 2.63 folds. The results revealed the ability of the developed ZLP loaded bi-layered chronopatch to be a candidate for overcoming early morning awakening without middle of night dose administration.

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