Bone regeneration in osteoporosis by delivery BMP-2 and PRGF from tetronic–alginate composite thermogel

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As the life expectancy of the world population increases, osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk increase. Therefore in the present study a novel injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel loaded with microspheres of 17β-estradiol, microspheres of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) was applied locally to regenerate a calvaria critical bone defect in OP female rats. Three systems were characterized: Tetronic® 1307 (T-1307) reinforced with alginate (T-A), T-A with PRGF and T-A-PRGF with microspheres. The addition of the microspheres increased the viscosity but the temperature for the maximum viscosity did not change (22–24 °C). The drugs were released during 6 weeks in one fast phase (three days) followed by a long slow phase. In vivo evaluation was made in non-OP and OP rats treated with T-A, T-A with microspheres of 17β-estradiol (T-A-βE), T-A-βE prepared with PRGF (T-A-PRGF-βE), T-A-βE with microspheres of BMP-2 (T-A-βE-BMP-2) and the combination of the three (T-A-PRGF-βE-BMP). After 12 weeks, histological and histomorphometric analyzes showed a synergic effect due to the addition of BMP-2 to the T-A-βE formulation. The PRGF did not increased the bone repair. The new bone filling the OP defect was less mineralized than in the non-OP groups.

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