Nanoparticle-based delivery of carbamazepine: A promising approach for the treatment of refractory epilepsy

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Graphical abstractResistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a major clinical problem. The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), one of the main transporters limiting the entry of xenobiotics into the brain, is among the factors contributing to the AED resistance. Presently, there is no consensus on the interaction of carbamazepine (CBZ) with the Pgp. This study investigates the effect of the Pgp inhibitor verapamil on the anticonvulsant effect of CBZ and its nanoparticulate formulation in the rat model of isoniazid-induced epilepsy. Verapamil significantly increased the anticonvulsant effect of CBZ and reduced its effective dose by at least 30% (from 30 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg). Binding of carbamazepine to the poloxamer 188-coated PLGA nanoparticles enabled a 30-fold increase of its anticonvulsive effect, as compared to the free drug. The inhibition of Pgp did not influence the effectivity of carbamazepine encapsulated in nanoparticles.

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