All-atomistic molecular dynamics (AA-MD) studies and pharmacokinetic performance of PAMAM-dendrimer-furosemide delivery systems

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Improvement of problematic dissolution and solubility properties of a model drug, furosemide, was investigated for poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer complexes of the drug. Full and half generation dendrimers with amino and ester terminals respectively, were studied. In vitro release performance of these complexes was investigated at drug loads ranging 5–60% using simulated gastric fluids. Full generation dendrimers accommodated higher drug loads, outperformed half-generation complexes, and free drug. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats indicated that the dendrimer complexes markedly improved in the bioavailability of the drug compared to the unformulated drug. The G3.0-PAMAM dendrimer complex showed a two-fold increase in Cmax and a 1.75-fold increase in AUC over the free drug. Additionally, Tmax was shortened from approximately 25 to 20 min. One of the first all-atomistic molecular dynamics (AA-MD) simulation studies was performed to evaluate low-generation dendrimer-drug complexes as well as its pharmacokinetic performance. AA-MD provided insight into the intermolecular interactions that take place between the dendrimer and drug. It is suggested that the dendrimer not only encapsulates the drug, but can also orientate the drug in stabilized dispersion to prevent drug clustering which could impact release and bioavailability negatively. AA-MD can be a useful tool to develop dendrimer-based drug delivery systems.

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