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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Despite available therapeutic options, the prognosis for patients with GBM remains very poor. We hypothesized that the intra-operative injection of a photopolymerizable hydrogel into the tumor resection cavity could sustain the release of the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles and prevent GBM recurrence. The tumor was resected 13days after implantation and a pre-gel solution composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) polymer, a photoinitiator and PTX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PTX PLGA-NPs) was injected into the tumor resection cavity. A solid gel filling the whole cavity was formed immediately by photopolymerization using a 400nm light. PTX in vitro release study showed a burst release (11%) in the first 8h and a sustained release of 29% over a week. In vitro, U87 MG cells were sensitive to PTX PLGA-NPs with IC50 level of approximately 0.010μg/mL. The hydrogel was well-tolerated when implanted in the brain of healthy mice for 2 and 4months. Administration of PTX PLGA-NPs-loaded hydrogel into the resection cavity of GBM orthotopic model lead to more than 50% long-term survival mice (150days) compared to the control groups (mean survival time 52days). This significant delay of recurrence is very promising for the post-resection treatment of GBM.