Dosing considerations for inhaled biologics

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Graphical abstractThe number of biologics in the therapeutic development pipeline is increasing including those delivered though inhalation (Morales, 2017; Fathe, 2016). Biologics comprise a broad variety of complex macromolecules with unique physicochemical characteristics. These distinctive characteristics control their pharmacological mechanisms of action, stability, and ultimately affect their processing, formulation, and delivery requirements. This review systematically covers crucial aspects of biologic powders formulations and dry powder inhalers which need to be taken into consideration to establish the drug loading and the payload to be delivered to reach the desired clinical dose.

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