Multifunctional carbamazepine loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) formulation

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Graphical abstractCarbamazepine is a valuable pharmacological agent prescribed in treatment of epilepsy and trigeminal neuralgia. Poor bioavailability, successive dose adjustments and reported long term toxic effects are the main hurdles associated with carbamazepine oral administration. Bees wax containing NLC formulations were developed using high shear homogenization/sonication technique to overcome drug limitations. Formulations were successfully produced and evaluated for both in vitro and in vivo assessments. Results showed particles in nanometric range with negative surface charge and satisfying encapsulation efficiencies (from 93.1 ± 7.6 to 95.7 ± 5.6%). In vitro release studies revealed biphasic pattern and faster release was accompanied with higher bees wax concentration. Interaction between drug and NLC components was assessed using infrared and thermal analysis. Using validated chromatographic analytical method, selected formulation showed good pharmacokinetic profile depriving from plasma fluctuation with 2.27-fold and 1.83-fold improved bioavailability compared to conventional drug suspension and Tegretol™ suspension respectively. It also showed stronger anticonvulsant activity, with respect to conventional drug suspension, in terms of seizure latency, frequency and duration. Toxicity studies revealed undetectable liver or testicular toxicity in biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical investigations verifying its superiority above other investigated formulations. Collectively, results indicate potential suitability of NLC system to effectively and safely deliver carbamazepine orally.

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