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Ketoprofen, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, is widely used for relieving the pain and swelling caused by rheumatoid arthritis. However, ketoprofen can’t suppress disease progression effectively. In this study, in an effort to improve the therapeutic effect for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), microRNA-124 (miR-124), a promising new therapeutic agent for RA, was co-loaded with ketoprofen into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and administrated to adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. PLGA microspheres loaded with ketoprofen and miR-124 were prepared by a modified multiple emulsion–solvent evaporation method. In vivo pharmacodynamics experimental results indicated ketoprofen in co-loaded microspheres could significantly reduce inflammation of the joints and miR-124 in the microspheres could reduce bone damage. In addition, ketoprofen and miR-124 co-loaded PLGA microspheres had a remarkable advanced activity over delivery of either miR-124 or ketoprofen in suppressing adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in rats. Results of western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that miR-124 could reduce the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). These results suggested co-delivery of ketoprofen and miR-124 could achieve synergistic effects on preventing inflammation and bone damage caused by AA. Ketoprofen and miR-124 co-loaded PLGA microspheres could be a promising combined therapeutic strategy against RA.