In order to reduce injuries and deaths due to traffic accidents, Brazil has improved its legislation, with the normative framework subsidizing educational and inspection actions, aiming to reduce the number of traffic accidents and, consequently, deaths and injuries. In this context, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the requirement regarding use of restraining devices for children from zero to four years of age in reducing traffic accident hospitalizations and deaths in Brazil.
To reach its objective, this study analyzed the time series of hospitalizations and deaths of children from zero to four years of age due to traffic accidents from September 2005 to August 2015. Two cuts were applied; first, an analysis was carried out from 2005 and 2015, investigating the occurrence of a change in the time series after the mandatory use of restraining devices, which began in September 2010. After the mandatory use of restraining devices, a statistically significant decrease in hospitalizations and deaths of children from zero to four years of age due to traffic accidents was observed. Subsequently, the study period was divided into two samples, before and after the mandatory use of restraining devices. Confirming the previous results, a decrease in the intercept for hospitalizations and deaths was observed, as well as a decrease in the trend concerning hospitalization discharges, and an increase in the downward death trend after mandatory restraining device use.
Thus, this study concludes that the requirement for the use of restraining devices led to a decrease in children hospitalizations and deaths due to traffic accidents in the age group from zero to four years of age, thus indicating the importance of increasing public awareness regarding raising policies and strengthening supervision, so that these results become permanent.