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Traumatic brain injury(TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability in children. Understanding epidemiologic characteristics of TBI in children is the first step for developing preventative strategies, optimizing care systems and rehabilitation of injury.We aimed to describe and compare epidemiologic features and outcomes among children with TBI according to aged groups.This is a cross-sessional study based on the date of the Emergency Department(ED)–based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) in Korea. EDIIS is a prospective injury registry and total 23 EDs in tertiary hospital participate in it. We identified children (aged 0 to 18) with TBI in EDs between Jan. 2011 and Dec. 2015. We classified children into two aged categories: pre-school group (under 7 years old) and school-aged group (7 years old and over).During the study period (5 years), a total of 30 866 children with TBI were included in the analysis. There were 19 231 patients (62.3%) in pre-school group and 11 635 patients (37.7%) in school-aged group. TBI in school-aged group occurred more in male, road and school/educational facilities, recreational and educational activities, daytime and weekday compared with pre-school group (all p value<0.01). TBI in pre-school group occurred more in home, activity of daily living, evening time and weekend. Motor vehicle collision was more common in school aged group (35.6% vs 19.7%) but fall was more common in pre-school group (36.7% vs 72.2%). The school-aged group had a higher mortality rate compared with pre-school group (0.3% vs 1.1%, AOR: 1.6 (1.1–2.2)), and a higher intracranial injuries ((7.3% vs 14.4%, AOR: 1.6 (1.5–1.8)).The epidemiological characteristics of TBI in school-aged group are differentiated from pre-school group and rate of mortality and intracranial injuries in school-aged group were higher. It is necessary to develop differentiated preventative strategies and treatment systems according to aged groups in children.