Hesperetin exerts dose dependent chemopreventive effect against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced rat colon carcinogenesis

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Colon cancer is still one of the leading causes of death in USA and is increasing at an alarming rate in Asia. It is one of the major causes of death in industrialized countries, and its etiology is known to be a combination of hereditary, environmental, dietary factors and lack of physical activity. Chemoprevention plays a potential role in colorectal cancer. The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of hesperetin supplementation on colonic aberrant crypt foci, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. The rats were segregated into six groups viz., group 1, control rats received modified pellet diet; group 2 rats received modified pellet diet along with hesperetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day); groups 3–6 administrated DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneous injection once a week for the first 4 weeks; in addition groups 4–6 received hesperetin at three different doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day for 16 weeks. All the rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental period of 16 weeks. Increased tumor incidence and increased number aberrant crypt foci (ACF) accompanied by a decrease in the tissue lipid peroxidation, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were observed in DMH-treated rats. Administration of hesperetin to DMH treated rats significantly decreased the tumor incidence, the number of aberrant crypt foci with simultaneous enhancement of tissue lipid peroxidation, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT activities. The results of this study suggest that hesperetin at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight showed a significant beneficial effect against chemically induced colonic carcinogenesis in rats as compared to the other two doses.

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