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The developments and future directions in the investigation and design of piezoelectric materials are analyzed. It is shown using concrete examples that, despite of clear signs of saturation in the search for new piezoelectric materials, this area continues to be the subject of intense attention. The current requirements for piezoelectrics, new classes of piezoelectric materials (Sn2P2S6 films, SbSI-based materials, and adaptive systems), and advanced technologies (films, textures, and piezocomposites) are considered. The experimental data are summarized on piezoelectric materials based on lead metaniobate, lead titanate, antimony sulfoiodide, and Bi-containing layered perovskite-like phases and porous piezoceramics exhibiting high hydrostatic sensitivity.