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Canine hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease), the ‘great pretender’ of internal medicine, is a disease that should be frequently considered as a differential diagnosis of several clinical presentations, albeit it is less commonly the actual cause of the clinical signs. Hypoadrenocorticism cannot be diagnosed on clinical signs alone and further investigations are always required. There have been some interesting new ideas about diagnostic options for this condition and new treatment options are available for both acute and chronic therapy of the condition in dogs. It is therefore pertinent to review the causes, diagnosis and treatment of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.