The application of intravenous, intrathecal, and inhalation enhancement techniques to the CT evaluation of the nonhuman primate (Papio cynoceplialiislanubis) is described. The falx cerebri cortical vasculature, vein of Galen, straight sinus and tentorium cerebelli were defined with intravenous enhancement. Intrathecal CT enhancement with air was limited by distortion in cerebrospinal fluid spaces. Intrathecal CT enhancement using a low dose of metrizamide accurately delineated the subarachnoid spaces and the brain substance they surrounded with minimal morbidity. Symmetrical brain enhancement (perfusion) was prominent following inhalation CT enhancement; the degree of enhancement correlated with the estimated xenon concentration in the bloodstream. In addition, by performing repeated CT scans during the clearance of xenon from the brain, an approximate analysis of regional cerebral blood flow was obtained.