RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. A new vascular occlusion device was tested in canine femoral and iliac arteries and in an animal model of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
METHODS. Four variations of the vascular plug were placed into 18 iliac or femoral arteries of 17 mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was performed 1 hour and, if necessary, 2 hours after placement in all animals, 14 of which were then killed. Three dogs were followed angiographically for 2 weeks to 3 months. The “butterfly” plug was then tested in a canine model of a PDA.
RESULTS. All plugs contained thrombi, and 12 of the 18 devices caused complete or nearly complete vascular occlusion within 2 hours. In one dog, one vascular plug had eroded through the vessel wall at 3 months without clinical sequelae. Successful PDA occlusion was achieved in 1 or 2 days in 6 of 8 dogs. Three misplacements occurred, one of which resulted in death.
DISCUSSION. The balloon-expandable vascular plug appears to be a promising device for occlusion of blood vessels. Migration has not been observed once the device is placed, thus, sizing of the device appears less critical than with coils. However, modification of the delivery system and considerably more experience with the device are necessary to reduce the risk of misplacement.