Calling and Duetting Behavior in the Leafhopper Balclutha incisa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae): Opportunity for Female Choice?


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Abstract

Male Balclutha incisa (Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) produces substrate-borne signals as well as sounds produced by wing fluttering. Males produce 6 signal types that are associated with different behavioral activities: (i) cleaning, (ii) calling, (iii) precopulatory, (iv) copulation, (v) postcopulatory behavior, and (vi) aggression. Within each category signals have a high degree of stereotypy in regard to their temporal structure. Females produce two kinds of signals: (i) a duetting signal in response to the male, and (ii) an introductory or preparatory signal before the main signal. The sexes duet, with the female placing its signal immediately after the first two components of the male's call, with an interval of some 136 ms. We discuss the role of the male calls in attracting females and the importance of the duet in maintaining a temporary pair-bond.

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